A growth decomposition for the U.S. private domestic economy and a 38-industry breakdown. For peak years between 1899 and 1941, this dataset includes detailed estimates for output, employment, hours worked, labor quality, labor services, capital stocks, capital quality, capital services and both a crude and refined measure of total factor productivity.

AUTHORS: Gerben Bakker, Nicholas Crafts and Pieter Woltjer


A 38-industry breakdown of the U.S. private domestic economy between 1899-1941. The dataset includes real output (Y), employment (E), hours worked (H), labor quality (LQ),  labor services (L), capital stock (N), capital quality (KQ), capital services (K), capital share (alpha), total factor productivity (TFP), intensive growth contribution (IGC) and nominal value added (omega).

file variables countries years # obs.
icn_excel us_ga_1899t1941 va, emp, h, lq, k, tfp US 1899-1941 4,141


Additional Data

The detailed results and underlying data for the spillovers regression in Bakker et al. (2019). The dataset includes the acceleration in TFP growth (dTFP), average growth of horsepower of electrical motors (dHP), and the average growth of ‘Great Inventions’ capital services (DGI).

file variables countries years # obs.
icn_excel us_spillovers_1919t1941 dTFP, dHP, dGI US 1919-1941 710

Sources and Methods

A detailed description of the sources and the steps taken to compile the data-set are provided in the PDF file below. The methods are compatible with the post-war growth accounts by the Bureau of Economic Analysis and the work of Dale Jorgenson.

file description
icn_pdf us_ga_sources Overview of sources and methods underlying data-set


IMPORTANT: the data underlying ‘U.S. Historical National Accounts, 1929-1947‘ are freely available as long as the article below is cited appropriately:

Bakker, Gerben, Nicholas Crafts, and Pieter Woltjer. “The Sources of Growth in a Technologically Progressive Economy: the United States, 1899-1941.” Economic Journal (2019) forthcoming.

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